World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. With rice, wheat is the world’s most favored staple food. It is one of the top three most produced crops in the world, along with corn and rice. Wheat is a type of grass grown all over the world for its highly nutritious and useful grain. Wheat has been cultivated for over 10,000 years and probably originates in the Fertile Crescent, along with other staple crops. A wide range of wheat products are made by humans, including most famously flour, which is made from the grain itself.
Wheat, cereal grass of the genus Triticum (family Poaceae) and its edible grain, is one of the oldest and most important of the cereal crops. The wheat plant has long, slender leaves, stems that are hollow in most types of wheat plants, and heads that have many kinds of flowers, from 20 to 100. The flowers are grouped together in spikelets. Each spikelet has two to six flowers. In most spikelet’s, two or three of the flowers become fertilized, and this makes them produce the grains used for food.
Wheat is one of the most important staple food grains of human race. India produces about 70 million tons of wheat per year or about 12 per cent of world production. India is the second largest in wheat consumption after China, with a steep growing wheat demand. Wheat producing states in India are UP, Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Wheat has a narrow geographic land base of production as compared to rice or pulses. It is a temperate crop requiring low temperatures and most of the country is tropical.